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There is really little difference between the kind of state that Kant describes as just and the kind we have seen existing in the thinking of Turgot and Adam Smith. There must be on every count—moral and political as well as economic—a maximum of autonomy granted the individual in all areas of life. History of the Idea of Progress, Basic Books, , pp. But in accord with my belief that we should always attempt to present the arguments of an important philosopher in the strongest possible terms, however much we may disagree with those arguments, I shall do the best I can for Kant.

Among the necessary requirements that must be satisfied before I can legitimately claim an external object as my private property is the exercise of my will. Starting with this role of the will in acquiring property, Kant called attention to a very interesting issue. By my act of will, and mine alone, I can morally obligate everyone else in society indeed, in the entire world to respect my decisions regarding my property.

And this moral right is also an enforceable moral claim, one that permits me to use physical force against those who attempt to violate my property rights. So how is it that my singular will can obligate everyone else to follow my desires regarding my property? Kant regarded this question as among the most the most important and difficult problems in political philosophy. As I explained in an earlier essay , Kant argued that the right to use force in defense of a juridical right is an essential element in the original right itself.

It is not as if the right to use defensive force is somehow tacked on to the original right and justified with a separate argument. Thus to claim a right to use and dispose of our property is simultaneously to claim a right to use force against those who attempt to violate this moral claim. From this inseparable relationship between a rights-claim and the legitimate power to enforce that claim, it follows that a right that can never be enforced by impartial means lacks a key ingredient of the concept.

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A just society demands more than that legitimate claims about property rights be widely accepted; a just society also requires a reasonably reliable mechanism that can enforce our rights. Justice also requires that I and others be able to enforce our rights against violators.

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Moreover, as Kant understood his own Categorical Imperative, I may claim rights for myself only if I recognize the equal rights of everyone else. And since to claim a right for myself is simultaneously to claim my right to use force against anyone who seeks to violate that right, this entails that I must acknowledge the equal right of others to use force against me should I attempt to violate their rights.

Rights, in short, require reciprocity by all members of a society, which includes the understanding that others may legitimately use force against me if I attempt to violate their rights. It is logically demanded of me because unless I submit to a government that protects the rights of everyone, I cannot claim any rights for myself. It may therefore be said that in asserting my right to freedom, I have simultaneously agreed, if only in a theoretical sense, to obey the decrees of a government whose job it is to protect the rights of every person within its jurisdiction.

Kant appeals to his Categorical Imperative—which demands that all moral principles be universalizable—to support his opposition to the rights of resistance and revolution. According to the universal maxim implicit in the rights of resistance and revolution, therefore, every individual would have the right to disobey and ultimately to resist any law that he or she personally regards as unjust or oppressive.

But this maxim would contradict the very foundation of political sovereignty, according to which only the sovereign has the right to render final, binding, and enforceable decisions about when force is appropriate in particular situations. Here is how Kant put this point:. This is because under an already existing civil constitution the people no longer have the right to judge and to determine how the constitution should be administered. Neither of them can serve as judge in his own case.

Thus, there would still have to be another head above the head to decide between the latter and the people—and that is contradictory. He eats and plays and sleeps when he desires to do so, there is no reasoning on his part. Beth, in contrast, can reflect on the various reasons she has, reasons to care for her sister and the homeless.

Kant certainly thought so and he takes this insight as his starting point. Neither give practical advice about particular situations but rather through rational reflection, Kant seeks to establish the supreme principle of morality. Imagine, your friend has told you that she is pregnant but asks you to promise to keep her secret. Through the coming weeks this juicy bit of gossip is on the tip of your tongue but you do not tell anyone because of your promise.

There are things we recognise as being required of us irrespective of what we really desire to do. This is what Kant means by duty. If it is not desires that move us to do what is right even really strong desires , what does? In our example, why is it that we keep our promise despite the strong desire to gossip? It is something that is good irrespective of effects :. A good will is good not because of what it effects or accomplishes — because of its fitness for attaining some proposed end: it is good through its willing alone — that is, good in itself.

It is impossible to conceive anything at all in the world, or even out of it, which can be taken as good without qualification, except a good will. Well, pick anything you like which you think might make an action good — for example, happiness, pleasure, courage, and then ask yourself if there are any situations you can think of where an action having those features makes those actions worse?

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Imagine someone who is happy when kicking a cat; or someone taking pleasure in torture; or a serial killer whose courage allows her to abduct children in broad daylight. In such cases the happiness, pleasure and courage make the actions worse. Kant thinks we can repeat this line of thinking for anything and everything, except one thing — the good will. Even Kant thinks this sounds like a rather strange idea.

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So how can he and we be confident that the good will even exists? He stood peacefully whilst the British police beat him. Here is a case where there must have been an overwhelming desire to fight back. But he did not.

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  5. However, Kant thinks that any acts like this, which are performed despite conflicting desires , are due to the good will. Considering such actions can you think of any? We act despite our desires to do otherwise.

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    For Kant this means that acting for the sake of duty is the only way that an action can have moral worth. We will see below what we have to do for our actions to be carried out for the sake of duty. However, before we do this, we need to be really clear on this point about moral worth. You pass someone begging on the street. Your friend starts to weep, fumbles in his wallet and gives the beggar some money and tells you that he feels such an empathy with the poor man that he just has to help him.

    He is acting in accordance with duty. But despite this:.

    We must be careful though. Kant is not telling us to become emotionally barren robots! He is not saying that before we can act morally we need to get rid of sympathy, empathy, desires, love, and inclinations. Consider an action such as giving to others. We should ask whether an action of giving to others would have been performed even if the agent lacked the desire to do so.

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    This though is consistent with the agent actually having those desires. The question for Kant is not whether an agent has desires but what moved the agent to act. If they acted because of those desires they acted in accordance with duty and their action had no moral worth. If they acted for the sake of duty, and just happened to have those desires, then their action has moral worth.

    His answer is that we have to act out of respect for the moral law. He has two examples of how this works in practice: lying and suicide. However, before doing this we need to get a sense of what Kant has in mind when he talks about acting out of respect for the moral law.